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All the material on this website is copyrighted to J-P Metsavainio, if not otherwise stated. Any content on this website may not be reproduced without the author’s permission.

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Thursday, October 21, 2021

Grand Mosaic of the Milky Way is now large than ever

Last Spring I published a large mosaic photo of the Milky Way and it went viral!
I have now even a large version of it, the mosaic spans 145 degrees of sky from Orion to Cygnus, the previous version showed 120 degrees of sky.

The new panorama image was published today in Finnish Tähdet ja Avaruus Magazine 
at first time in the World.
.

The Grand Mosaic of the Milky Way Galaxy II
 This is the only photo in the World showing the Northern Milky Way so deep and detailed, now it's large than ever!

Click for a large image, 7000 x 1150 pixels

Over a decade, 1500 exposure hours and 301 individual frames visible in one image
NOTE, image of the Full Moon as a scale in lover left corner.

IMAGE SPECS
  • Panorama spans 145 x 22 degrees of sky (Full Moon covers 0,5 degrees of sky)
  • Resolution 120.000 x 18.000 pixels
  • Photos has 2.2 gigapixels in it, the spatial resolution is equal to 8.8 gigapixel image from color camera since all the channels are in native resolution.
  • There are least eight confirmed supernova remnants in this panorama
  • About 25 million stars are visible in the photo
  • Distance to the nebulae in the image between 350 to 20.000 light years
  • Exposure time over 1500 hours between 2009 - 2021
  • 301 individual images are stitched together seamlessly 
  • It took about 12 years to finalize this photo
  • Narrowband image from light of ionized elements,    hydrogen = green, sulfur = red and oxygen = blue
  • Processing time for the whole panorama, way too large part of my life


ORIENTATION

Click for a large image

The high-resolution panoramic photo spans 145 degrees of the Northern milky way



CLOSEUP SERIES
Click for the large images, it's worth it!

A zoom in series from upper left of the large panorama image above to gives an idea about the overall resolution of the large mosaic image.


All the dots are stars, not the noise!



Closeup of the Monkey Head nebula from the lower left corner of the image above.



DETAILS

Click for a large image, 5000 x 1500 pixels

There are several very dim and practically unimaged supernova remnants in this panorama.



WHY?

The reason I keep doing my slow work is an endless curiosity, I love to show how wonderful our world really is. That's how I feel at front of everything I'm able to see through my photography. This is my purpose as an artist. I have to fulfil the demands of my passion – and I have done so for about 25 years.

Photographed area of sky is showing a large part of Northern Milky Way in high resolution. Beside the size, it's very deep, meaning that it shows extremely dim and unimaged nebulae across the galaxy plane. One of the reasons for this massive panorama project was a fact, that there was no such an image anywhere in the world.  I had personal need for the photo like this since I wanted to use it as a map to the new adventures.

Revealing the hidden beauty of our universe is my passion. I stand in rapt adoration before all that I see. When art meets science, the results can be quite mind-blowing.


HOW?



Step 1, 

PLANNING

Astronomical photography is a very time-consuming process. If I want to have a color image, I have to shoot each target least three times through a different filter to have all three-color channels needed for color image. Also, the exposure times can be very long, in my case even hundreds of hours for some very dim objects. An average exposure time is around 25 hours per image. Also everything has to be carefully pre planned.

I made imaging plans over ten years ago, I wrote first ideas about this imaging project to my little black Moleskin notebook. I was aware at the time, that it will take a decade to be finalized but it doesn't bother me since I love long projects, they are giving a purpose and the goal to my work as an artist. 


My little black notebook and first plans for the project at 2008

A notebook page opening from Autumn 2008

I needed to develop many new working methods to be able to control this massive project. I needed to get them ready first since ones started, the project can't be changed anymore without canceling it. Everything needs to be spot on, the planning of composition and its relation to the Milky Way objects, many technical aspects, like how to handle a data from different optics with a different spatial resolution etc. I won't go very deep into technical details, since the complex technique needed is just a tool to make my art.  




A notebook pages from 2009

I like to compare my long imaging projects to a relationship. This project was like that too but not just between two entities. This is like a relationship with the whole family, a large Klan. There might be a nasty drunk uncle or other difficult persons in a family but
you must be able to get along with them too. I felt like that, when I was stitching pieces
together and some of them didn't fit the way I wanted and I had to reshoot them. That easily took months, or years. but at the end, everything slides together smoothly without any visible seams.

I'm a perfectionist, when dealing with my photography. This feature is essential for the great results but it also can cause problems. This photo could be ready maybe five years earlier, if I could leave some extremely dim targets out or leave them less detailed but I simply couldn't do that. When the photo was ready, I didn't remember all of those sleepless cold nights, I remembered the joy I felt when the most difficult parts got ready.



Step 2, 

COLLECTING THE MATERIAL 

2009 - 2021


NOTE

Each photo in the posters is a slow and complex battle of its own

Click for a large image



 
Some of my individual photos shot between 2009 and 2021 are collected here. Most of them are now part of the Large Mosaic Image of the Milky Way galaxy.


Step 3, 

2019 -2021, SOLVING THE BIG PUZZLE

Finally at 2019, after so many years, I had enough material to start working with the final mosaic image. The work took about two years due to complex mosaic structure and massive amount of image material. I also needed to shoot lots of missing material for the mosaic at the same time

I used the Cartes du Ciel, a star map software, for planning and a preliminary fit the individual frames.








EVOLUTION OF THE LARGE MOSAIC

BETWEEN 2009-2021

Click for a large image

This image collection show the evolution of my Large Mosaic of the Milky Way Galaxy.


Step 4,
 

ALL THE PIECES OF A 

 COSMIC PUZZLE CONNECTED

Click for a large image

The final photo is over 120 000 pixels wide and it has 301 individual mosaic panel. Most of the objects are originally shot as a self-standing artworks, due to that, they are in various positions and angles to each other. This is the reason, why the final mosaic structure looks so complicated, as can be seen in this image.

AND FINALLY

At October 2021, after 12 years, 1500 hours of exposures and countless hours of work

The Grand Mosaic of the Milky Way Galaxy II

Click for a full size image, 7000 x 4300 pixels

Getting to a last piece of the puzzle is always a thrilling process. Many of us know, how frustrating it can be to notice, that one piece is missing. That's happened to me too. I was sure that I shot the piece about three years ago but couldn't find it anywhere from my hard drives. As a result, I had to wait several extremely long weeks to be able to reshoot the missing piece to get this massive puzzle finalized. 


The Mosaic Work, technical info

I have used several optical configurations for this mosaic image during the years. Up to 2014 I was using an old Meade LX200 GPS 12" scope, QHY9 astrocam, Canon E200mmf1.8 camera optics and baader narrowband filter set.


I have shot many details with a longer focal length, before 2014 by using Meade 12" scope with reducer and after 2014 Celestron EDGE 11" and reducer. Quider camera has been Lodestar and Lodestar II.

I took my current toolset as a base tool since it has a relatively high resolution combined to a very large field of view. Also it collects photons very quickly since it's undersampled and I can have very dim background nebulosity visible in very short time (many times 30 min frame is enough)

I do all my mosaic work under the PhotoShop, Matching the separate panels by using stars as an indicator is kind of straight forward work. My processing has become so constant, that very little tweaking was needed between separate frames, just some minor levels, curves and color balance. 

I have used lots of longer focal length sub-frames in my mosaic to boost details. (See the mosaic map at top of the page) To match them with shorter focal length shots I developed a new method.

Firstly I upscale the short focal length frames about 25% to have more room for high resolution images.Then I match the high res photo to a mosaic by using the stars as an indicator. After that I remove all the tiny stars from the high res image. Next I separate stars from low res photo and merge the starless high res data to a starless low res frame. And finally I place the removed low res stars back at top of everything with zero data lost. Usually there are some optical distortions and it's seen especially in a star field. Now all my stars are coming from a same optical setup and I don't have any problems with distortions. (I'm using the same star removal technique as in my Tone Mapping Workflow)




Tuesday, October 12, 2021

Night Fever, Exhibition in Helsinki 14.10 - 04.12. 2021


NIGHT FEVER

EXHIBITION 14.10 - 04.12.2021, THE PLATFORM GALLERY

Lapinlahdenkatu 16 C, 00180 Helsinki

NIGHT FEVER" WILL BE OPEN IN EXHIBITION AT THE PLATFORM GALLERY IN HELSINKI FROM 14.10 - 4.12.2021

The exhibit will be open in the the evenings to highlight the
beauty and mystique of the cosmos.

Thursday to Saturday of the opening days will have special opening hours.

14.10 - 16.10
7pm to 10pm

General Opening hours Starting 20.10

Wed - Fri: 5pm to 9pm
Sat: 2pm to 8pm

We are also open on select Sundays and Holidays and
outside opening hours by appointment

NOTE

A three meter long museum quality print of Grand Mosaic of Milky Way is one of the artworks in exhibition.


Thursday, October 7, 2021

Filaments of Veil in mapped colors

 I shot most of the lights for this image back in 2016, now I have added some new material to it and reprocessed the whole image. A version in visual color palette can be seen here,  https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2021/09/filaments-of-veil-nebula-snr.html

Photo was shot with a Celestron Edge HD 11" telescope, Astrodon naarrow band filters and Apogee Alta U16 astro camera. New data is shot with a shorter focal length instrument, Tokina AT-x 300mm f2.8 camera lens, same camera and filters. Dim background emission is taken from a new material and added to this photo. 

Total exposure time is now 44 hours for the whole three frame mosaic and the resolution is 11.000 x 4000 pixels.

Filaments of central veil
Click for a large image (1100 x 2900 pixels)

Image is in mapped colors, from the emission of ionized elements, R=Sulphur, G=Hydrogen and B=Oxygen


A closeup
Click for a large image

The Pickering's Triangle part of the Veil Nebula


Orientation
Click for a large image


INFO

Since all of the heavier elements are born in exploding stars, we all are children of supernovae. Veil Nebula is located in the constellation Cygnus at a distance of 1500 light-years. It spans three degrees of sky, (Moon has an angular diameter of 0,5 degrees at the sky) real diameter is around 70 light-years. I collected data for the photo between 2012-2020 and I made this 3D model in 2021,exposure time is 45 hours

A 3D-study of Veil nebula SNR
3D-study of Veil Nebula Photo


Every single pixel in this 3d-animation is from the original 2D-image above. The model is based on on known scientific facts, deduction and some artistic creativity. The result is an appraised simulation of reality. Astronomical photos are showing objects as paintings on a canvas, totally flat. In reality, they are three dimensional forms floating in three dimensional space. The purpose of my 3d-experiments is to show that and Give an idea, how those distant objects might look in reality.

INFO About my 3D-transformation technique and large animation here: https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2021/10/unveiling-veiled.html





Wednesday, October 6, 2021

Unveiling The Veiled

The Veil nebula supernova remnant in Cygnus. Original image was shot with the Canon EF 200 mm f1.8 camera optics full open, QHY9 astro camera and Baader narrowband filters at 2013.

New data is shot with Tokina 300mm f2.8 camera optics and Celestron Edge HD 11" telescope, Apogee Alta U16 astro camera with Astrodon narrowband filters between 2016 - 2020
Total exposure time is now about 45 hours.

The Veil nebula @SuperRare auction 
Animation,
 https://superrare.com/artwork-v2/unveiling-the-veiled-volume-29145
Photo, https://superrare.com/artwork-v2/unveiling-the-veiled-29137

Veil nebula Unveiled

Click for a large image, 1250 x 1700 pixels

A very deep image of the veil nebula supernova remnant in mapped colors.
Nebula in visual colors from light emitted by an ionized elements can be seen here,
https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2021/09/veil-nebula-unveiled-ii.html

3D-study of Veil Nebula Photo


Every single pixel in this 3d-animation is from the original 2D-image above. The model is based on on known scientific facts, deduction and some artistic creativity. The result is an appraised simulation of reality. Astronomical photos are showing objects as paintings on a canvas, totally flat. In reality, they are three dimensional forms floating in three dimensional space. The purpose of my 3d-experiments is to show that and Give an idea, how those distant objects might look in reality.

INFO


Since all of the heavier elements are born in exploding stars, we all are children of supernovae. Veil Nebula is located in the constellation Cygnus at a distance of 1500 light-years. It spans three degrees of sky, (Moon has an angular diameter of 0,5 degrees at the sky) real diameter is around 70 light-years. I collected data for the photo between 2012-2020 and I made this 3D model in 2021,exposure time is 45 hours

How the 3D-model is made


My Moleskine notebook pages from 2008, I planned how to convert nebulae to 3D


For as long as I have captured images of celestial objects, I have always seen hem three-dimensionally in my head. The scientific information makes my inner visions much more accurate, and the 3-D technique I have developed enables me to share those beautiful visions with others.

How accurate my 3-D-visions are depending on how much information I have and how well I implement it.

The final 3-D-image is always an appraised simulation of reality based on known scientific facts, deduction, and some artistic creativity.

After I have collected all the necessary scientific information about my target, I start my 3-D conversion from stars. Usually there is a recognizable star cluster which is responsible for ionizing the nebula. We don’t need to know its absolute location since we know its relative location. Stars ionizing the nebula have to be very close to the nebula structure itself. I usually divide up the rest of the stars by their apparent brightness, which can then be used as an indicator of their distances, brighter being closer. If true star distances are available, I use them, but most of the time my rule of thumb is sufficient. By using a scientific estimate of the distance of the Milky Way object, I can locate the correct number of stars in front of it and behind it.

Emission nebulae are not lit up directly by starlight; they are usually way too large for that. Rather, stellar radiation ionizes elements within the gas cloud and the nebula itself is glowing light, the principle is very much the same as in fluorescent tubes. The thickness of the nebula can be estimated from its brightness, since the whole volume of gas is glowing, brighter means thicker.

By this means, forms of the nebula can be turned to a real 3-D shape. Nebulae are also more or less transparent, so we can see both sides of it at the same time, and this makes model-making a little easier since not much is hidden.

The local stellar wind, from the star cluster inside the nebula, shapes the nebula by blowing away the gas around the star cluster. The stellar wind usually forms a kind of cavity in the nebulosity. The same stellar wind also initiates the further collapse of the gas cloud and the birth of the second generation of stars in the nebula. The collapsing gas can resist the stellar wind and produces pillar like formations which must point to a cluster.

Ionized oxygen (O-III) glows with a bluish light, and since oxygen needs a lot of energy to ionize it, this can only be achieved relatively close to the star cluster in the nebula. I use this information to position the O-III area (the bluish glow) at the correct distance relative to the heart of the nebula.

Many other small indicators can be found by carefully studying the image itself. For example, if there is a dark nebula in the image, it must be located in front of the emission one, otherwise we couldn’t see it at all.

Using the known data in this way I build a kind of skeleton model of the nebula. Then the artistic part is mixed with the scientific and logical elements, and after that the rest is very much like creating a sculpture on a cosmic scale

3D-model without textures