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Tuesday, March 31, 2020

From Cassiopeia to Cepheus


This spring season I have shot wider field images with 300 mm f2.8 camera optics. Here are couple of panoramic mosaic images made by overlapping photos.

I do many of my mosaic images by shooting individual artworks pre planned so, that after few years I have overlapping photos from most of the area. Then I do some additional shots to fill the gaps.
My workflow is so constant, that very little or none tweaking is needed when it's time to joint the pieces together.


From CTB1 to Cave nebula
Click for a large mage, it's worth it!

CTB1 supernova remnant at upper left, Cave Nebula at upper right. Image is in mapped colors from a light from the ionized elements, hydrogen = green, sulfur = red and oxygen = blue.
Link to CTB1 image, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/02/ctb1-supernova-remnant-in-cassiopeia.html Link to Cave Nebula area photo, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/from-bubble-to-cave-round-ii.html


Even wider view
Click for a large mage


From Cassiopeia to Cepheus


Unfinished mosaic with Cederblad 214 (The Cosmic Question Mark)
Click for a large mage



Large mosaic photograph, shot between 2014 - 2020, 160h
Click for a large mage





Monday, March 30, 2020

IC 63 and NGC 281


I shot data for this image few weeks ago at 7.3.2020.  little over two hours for H-alpha light and only 20 min for both O-III and S-III. Beside that I took colors from my older longer focal length images of NGC 281 and IC 63. There is a reflection nebula component in IC 63 but in this narrowband image the blueish hueas are from an ionized oxygen, O-III.


IC 63 & NGC 281 
Click for a large image

Image is an visual colors from light of an ionized elements, hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen.



Orientation in Cassiopeia
Click for a large image




Older longer focal length photos 


IC 63
Click for a large image

Image details, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2017/01/the-ghost-of-christmas-past-ic-63.html

NGC 281
Click for a large image


Image details, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2014/11/ngc-281-siamese-fighting-fish.html









Saturday, March 28, 2020

The rise of Phoenixes, From Bubble to Cave Nebula


I have published this image in mapped colors couple of weeks ago, it can be seen here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/from-bubble-to-cave-round-ii.html

This time I'll like to show this beautiful area near Cassiopeia in visual spectrum. Ionized hydrogen (H-alpha) glows deep red light. Bluish hues are from an ionized oxygen.

From Bubble to Cave Nebula
Click for a large image,

Image is in visual colors composed from narrowband channels. Red light from an ionized hydrogen is dominating the view. Object at lower left is known asharpless 157, at lower center lays the Bubble Nebula, it can be seen as a tiny red pearl in his vide field image. The bluish are at upper right ist the Cave Nebula.


Sharpless 157, a Zoom Out Series
Click for a large image, NOTE, 4500 x 1024 pixels!

I made a Zoom out serie about Sharpless 157. It's a complex region near the famous Bubble nebula and it's kind of large. There are not too many photos of it around. I have marked the apparent size of the full Moon in each image. The angular size of a Moon is about 0,5 degrees, that's 30 arc minutes.
This kind of image gives an idea, how complex and fractal the gas structures can be. there are endless amount of variations and new details at every zoom level and beyond. 

Technical details


The vertical image is taken with Tokina AT-x camera optics, Apogee Alta U16 astrocamera and Astrodon narrowband filter set. Info about my imaging system can be seen here,
 https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/01/the-frankenstein-monster-my-current.html
Some older parts of the photo are taken back in 2014 with QHY9 astrocam, Baader narrowband filters and Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera lens.

Photo is taken from downtown Oulu, Finland. Due to an extensive light pollution I can do only narrowband imaging in my location. 
Total exposure time is around 20 hours.



Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Sharpless 205, NGC 1491 and Lynds Bright Nebula 696 in visual spectrum


I haven't seen any color photos out of those two large nebulae in this image, SSh2-205 at left and Lynds Bright Nebula 696 at right edge of the photo. The astronomer
Richard Perabo Wilds Helped me to recognize this object, many thanks for him! (NOTE, South is up.) I have publish a mapped color version couple of days ago, it can be seen here,  https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/a-two-frame-mosaic-photo-of-sharpless.html


Sharpless 205, NGC 1491 and  Lynds Bright Nebula 696
You really should click the photo to see the large image!

Visual colors from narrowband channels, H-alpha, O-III and S-II, red emission from ionized  hydrogen is dominating the view, there are some bluish hues from am ionized oxygen too. Star colors are from narrowband channels.



H-alpha channel alone
Click for a large image

This grayscale photo shows only the light emitted by an ionized hydrogen. (H-alpha)
I actually like grayscale photos very much, somehow they are much more delicate to the subject.

INFO

This must be one of the dimmest targets I have shot so far. There are very weak emission from the ionized oxygen and sulfur, so I was able to make a three band color composition.
There are lots of 20 min. sub-exposures, total exposure time for H-alpha emission is 25h, for O-III 9h and for S-II 9h. Total 43h from several nights between 28.02 and 21.03.
Total exposure time is 43 hours but the effective exposure time is much more 30 hours of of sub-exposures was taken as binned down to 2x2.  It means that four pixels act like a one pixel, the resolution drops to 1/4 from original but the signal is four times stronger. When binned down 2x2 the signal in 30 hours of exposure has as strong signal as in 120 hours of exposures at binning level 1x1!

My imaging system works better than I thought when I build it. Old Tokina AT-x 300 mm f2.8 camera lens, Astrodon narrowband filter set (H-a 5nm, O-III 3nm & S-II 3nm) and Apogee Alta U16 astro camera with 9 microns pixel size and 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD array. This gives me spatial resolution of about six arc seconds / pixel. Undersampling is a great thing, if you want to capture some very dim nebulae in relatively short time!

I was using my VARES imaging method to this photo. (VAriable RESolution imaging) All the high signal/noise elements, like stars and brighter parts of the nebula are from binning level 1x1. Lower signal/noise elements, like dim background glow and dimmer parts of the nebula clouds, are from binning level 2x2. Lower binning modes, like 4x4 or 8x8, was not used this time. There star field is way too dense at 300mm focal length when shooting at 6 arch seconds / pixel.

Orientation

This really is a large target, it spans about eleven degrees horizontally.

Sharpless 205 & NGC 1491
Click for a large image (~1300 x 1300 pixels)

Left half of the mosaic image above as an individual artwork.


An older long focal length image of  NGC 1491
Click for a large image

Image from Spring 2015, more info here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2015/04/ngc-1491.html
NGC 1491 is a very dim target in Perseus. Original image from the Spring season 2015. Image is reprocessed, about twenty hours of new data added from the new wide field image. (Unpublished) Added data is very dim background glow from ionized hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen, it's pretty featureless so difference in resolution does no harm the image. The final photo is now deeper with better colors.


Technical details

Processing workflow

Image acquisition, MaxiDL v5.07.
Stacked and calibrated in CCDStack2.
Deconvolution with a CCDStack2 Positive Constraint, 33 iterations, added at 50% weight
Color combine in PS CS3
Levels and curves in PS CS3.

Imaging optics
Tokina AT-x f2.8 camera lens

Mount
10-micron 1000

Cameras and filters
Imaging camera Apogee Alta U16 and Apogee seven slot filter wheel
Guider camera, Lodestar x 2 and an old spotting scope of Meade LX200
Astrodon filters,

5nm H-alpha 3nm S-II and 3nm O-III

Total exposure time 43 hours 
(30 hours was shot binned down 2x2, that gives equal signal as 120 hours of 1x1 binned exposures!)

H-alpha, 15 x 1200 s, binned 1x1 = 13 h
H-alpha, 21 x 1200 s, binned 2x2 = 14 h
O-III, 9 x 1200 s, binned 2x2 = 8 h
S-II, 9 x 1200 s. binned 2x2 = 8 h




Monday, March 23, 2020

A two frame mosaic photo of Sharpless 205, NGC 1491 and Lynds Bright Nebula 696


I think think this will be my last new photo for the Spring season 2020! Nights are getting very short up here 65 North.

I haven't seen any color photos out of those two large nebulae in this image, SSh2-205 at left and Lynds Bright Nebula 696 at right edge of the photo. (NOTE, South is up.) The astronomer
Richard Perabo Wilds Helped me to recognize this object, many thanks for him!


Sharpless 205, NGC 1491 and  Lynds Bright Nebula 696
You really should click the photo to see the large image!

Mapped colors from the emission of ionized elements, R=Sulfur, G=Hydrogen and B=Oxygen.


H-alpha channel alone
Click for a large image

This grayscale photo shows only the light emitted by an ionized hydrogen. (H-alpha)
I actually like grayscale photos very much, somehow they are much more delicate to the subject.

INFO

This must be one of the dimmest targets I have shot so far. There are very weak emission from the ionized oxygen and sulfur, so I was able to make a three band color composition.
There are lots of 20 min. sub-exposures, total exposure time for H-alpha emission is 25h, for O-III 9h and for S-II 9h. Total 43h from several nights between 28.02 and 21.03.
Total exposure time is 43 hours but the effective exposure time is much more 30 hours of of sub-exposures was taken as binned down to 2x2.  It means that four pixels act like a one pixel, the resolution drops to 1/4 from original but the signal is four times stronger. When binned down 2x2 the signal in 30 hours of exposure has as strong signal as in 120 hours of exposures at binning level 1x1!

My imaging system works better than I thought when I build it. Old Tokina AT-x 300 mm f2.8 camera lens, Astrodon narrowband filter set (H-a 5nm, O-III 3nm & S-II 3nm) and Apogee Alta U16 astro camera with 9 microns pixel size and 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD array. This gives me spatial resolution of about six arc seconds / pixel. Undersampling is a great thing, if you want to capture some very dim nebulae in relatively short time!

I was using my VARES imaging method to this photo. (VAriable RESolution imaging) All the high signal/noise elements, like stars and brighter parts of the nebula are from binning level 1x1. Lower signal/noise elements, like dim background glow and dimmer parts of the nebula clouds, are from binning level 2x2. Lower binning modes, like 4x4 or 8x8, was not used this time. There star field is way too dense at 300mm focal length when shooting at 6 arch seconds / pixel.

Orientation

This really is a large target, it spans about eleven degrees horizontally.

Sharpless 205 & NGC 1491
Click for a large image (~1300 x 1300 pixels)

Mapped colors from the emission of ionized elements, R=Sulfur, G=Hydrogen and B=Oxygen.


A 1:1 closeup from upper right corner
Click for a large image 

Full resolution detalji, NGC 1491 at middle up



An older long focal length image of  NGC 1491

Click for a large image

Image from Spring 2015, more info here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2015/04/ngc-1491.html
NGC 1491 is a very dim target in Perseus. Original image from the Spring season 2015. Image is reprocessed, about twenty hours of new data added from the new wide field image. (Unpublished) Added data is very dim background glow from ionized hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen, it's pretty featureless so difference in resolution does no harm the image. The final photo is now deeper with better colors.

Lynds Bright Nebula 696
Click for a large image




Technical details

Processing workflow

Image acquisition, MaxiDL v5.07.
Stacked and calibrated in CCDStack2.
Deconvolution with a CCDStack2 Positive Constraint, 33 iterations, added at 50% weight
Color combine in PS CS3
Levels and curves in PS CS3.

Imaging optics
Tokina AT-x f2.8 camera lens

Mount
10-micron 1000

Cameras and filters
Imaging camera Apogee Alta U16 and Apogee seven slot filter wheel
Guider camera, Lodestar x 2 and an old spotting scope of Meade LX200
Astrodon filters,

5nm H-alpha 3nm S-II and 3nm O-III

Total exposure time 43 hours 
(30 hours was shot binned down 2x2, that gives equal signal as 120 hours of 1x1 binned exposures!)

H-alpha, 15 x 1200 s, binned 1x1 = 13 h
H-alpha, 21 x 1200 s, binned 2x2 = 14 h
O-III, 9 x 1200 s, binned 2x2 = 8 h
S-II, 9 x 1200 s. binned 2x2 = 8 h




Tuesday, March 17, 2020

A rare image, Sharpless 205 and NGC 1491 in constellation Perseus


The imaging season is getting shorter up here 65N, in a  few weeks we run out of an astronomical darkness for about six months.

Sharpless lays high at South East at around  nine o'clock  I can shoot it about five to six hours before my view gets blocked by a punch of antennas and the wall. I have about six degree field of view in my current imaging system, the Sh2-205 and NGC 1491 next to it fits very well in my field.

This is a very dim target, undersampled optical configuration, binning and a longish integration time helps to bring out details and faint surrounding nebulosity. I haven't seen many photos about this target around. Total exposure time 18 hours. (Note! 15 hours of it was shot binned down 2x2, that gives equal signal as 60 hours of 1x1 binned exposures!)


Sharpless 205 & NGC 1491
Click for a large image (~1300 x 1300 pixels)

Mapped colors from the emission of ionized elements, R=Sulfur, G=Hydrogen and B=Oxygen.



H-alpha channel alone, labeled

Click for a large image

Image in light emitted by an ionized hydrogen (H-alpha emission line)





A 1:1 closeup




Full resolution detalji, NGC 1491 at middle up






An older long focal length image of  NGC 1491

Click for a large image

Image from Spring 2015, more info here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2015/04/ngc-1491.html


NGC 1491 is a very dim target in Perseus. Original image from the Spring season 2015. Image is reprocessed, about twenty hours of new data added from the new wide field image. (Unpublished) Added data is very dim background glow from ionized hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen, it's pretty featureless so difference in resolution does no harm the image. The final photo is now deeper with better colors.



INFO


Sharpless 205 (Sh2-205) is a very dim emission nebula in constellation Perseus. The brighter peanut shaped area at the middle is known as Sharpless 205. 

NGC 1491 is a little brighter emission nebula that lays at upper right corner of the image. It has a distance of about 11.000 light years from Earth. A strong stellar wind from a star BD +50 ° 886 is blowing the gas away. The radiation from the star makes the gas glow by ionizing elements in the nebula.

Technical details

Processing workflow

Image acquisition, MaxiDL v5.07.
Stacked and calibrated in CCDStack2.
Deconvolution with a CCDStack2 Positive Constraint, 33 iterations, added at 50% weight
Color combine in PS CS3
Levels and curves in PS CS3.

Imaging optics
Tokina AT-x f2.8 camera lens

Mount
10-micron 1000

Cameras and filters
Imaging camera Apogee Alta U16 and Apogee seven slot filter wheel
Guider camera, Lodestar x 2 and an old spotting scope of Meade LX200
Astrodon filters,

5nm H-alpha 3nm S-II and 3nm O-III

Total exposure time 18 hours 
(15 hours was shot binned down 2x2, that gives equal signal as 60 hours of 1x1 binned exposures!)

H-alpha, 15 x 1200 s, binned 1x1 = 5 h
H-alpha, 21 x 1200 s, binned 2x2 = 7 h
O-III, 9 x 1200 s, binned 2x2 = 3 h
S-II, 9 x 1200 s. binned 2x2 = 3 h







Saturday, March 14, 2020

From Bubble to Cave, round II


I have published a horizontal version of this image few days ago, it can be seen here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/from-bubble-to-cave-nebula-area.html
This vertical version works too, it's little longer, than horizontal one. This area is part of much larger mosaic image of Cepheus, it can be seen here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/great-mosaic-of-cepheus.html


From Bubble to Cave Nebula
Click for a large image, 

Image is in mapped colors from a light from the ionized elements, hydrogen = green, sulfur = red and oxygen = blue.


Sharpless 157, a Zoom Out Series
Click for a large image, NOTE, 4500 x 1024 pixels!

I made a Zoom out serie about Sharpless 157. It's a complex region near the famous Bubble nebula and it's kind of large. There are not too many photos of it around. I have marked the apparent size of the full Moon in each image. The angular size of a Moon is about 0,5 degrees, that's 30 arc minutes.
This kind of image gives an idea, how complex and fractal the gas structures can be. there are endless amount of variations and new details at every zoom level and beyond. 

Technical details

The vertical image is taken with Tokina AT-x camera optics, Apogee Alta U16 astrocamera and Astrodon narrowband filter set. Info about my imaging system can be seen here,
 https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/01/the-frankenstein-monster-my-current.html
Some older parts of the photo are taken back in 2014 with QHY9 astrocam, Baader narrowband filters and Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera lens.

Photo is taken from downtown Oulu, Finland. Due to an extensive light pollution I can do only narrowband imaging in my location. 
Total exposure time is around 20 hours.





Wednesday, March 11, 2020

From the Bubble to Cave nebula area


Yesterday I published a panoramic photo of constellation Cepheus, there is new material in upper left corner area of the panorama. I made an individual composition out of this interesting area, dark clouds of gas and dust are shadowing light from energetic emission areas. Bubble Nebula can be seen as tiny pearl like formation at middle left. Near the Bubble lays much large Sharpless 157, thae bright area at lower left. Cave Nebula is located to upper right area of the photo.

From Bubble to Cave
Click for a large image

Image is in mapped colors from a light from the ionized elements, hydrogen = green, sulfur = red and oxygen = blue.


Orientation
The area of the new image above is marked as a white rectangle.
Large image and information about this Great Mosaic of Cepheus can be seen here,https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/great-mosaic-of-cepheus.html

Technical details

Image is taken with Tokina AT-x camera optics, Apogee Alta U16 astrocamera and Astrodon narrowband filter set. Info about my imaging system can be seen here,
 https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/01/the-frankenstein-monster-my-current.html
Some older parts of the photo are taken back in 2014 with QHY9 astrocam, Baader narrowband filters and Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera lens.

Photo is taken from downtown Oulu, Finland. Due to an extensive light pollution I can do only narrowband imaging in my location. 
Total exposure time is around 20 hours.










Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Great Mosaic of Cepheus


At 2014 I published a large mosaic image out of Constellation Cepheus. I have now shot new photos from the area and I was able to update my original panoramic photo mosaic.
This is the second updated mosaic image in a week, first one was the Grande Mosaic of Auriga, it can be seen here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/the-grande-mosaic-of-auriga.html

I have now somehow better tools but also my skills has been improved. I have also reprocessed the original photo for better colors and details.

Original mosaic had 10 panels, since my current imaging system has much large image sensor, I was able to cover several panels with just two photos. The mosaic photo has resolution of 13.000 x 7000 pixels and it has twelve panels.
Originally I used The Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera lens and QHY9 astronomical camera with Baader narrowband filter set. new material is shot with Tokina AT-x 300mm f2.8 camera lens and Apogee Alta U16 astronomical camera with Astrodon 50mm square narrowband filter set.
The total exposure time before current additions was around 92h. With new photos, the exposure time is now over 160h. (Most time is spend for the planetary nebula OU4 at upper right corner. 48 hours.)

Panoramic Photo of Cepheus
Click for a large image, it's worth it! (2400 x 1300 pixels)

Mapped colors from the emission of ionized elements, R=Sulfur, G=Hydrogen and B=Oxygen.
Large image 2400 pixels wide and ~4MB. Original resolution was about 13000 x 7000 pixels.


A detalji from a full size image
Click to see a large image


Dense starfield from about center of the full size photo.


Labeled image


Some main objects are labeled here


Photos used to upgrade the mosaic

Sharpless 132

https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2019/02/sharpless-132-sh2-132.html


IC 1396

https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/01/ic-1396-wide-field-reprocessed.html


From the bubble to Cave Nebula

https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/01/second-light-for-my-wide-field-imaging.html


OU4


https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2018/12/the-giant-cosmic-squid-nebula-au4-new.html


Sharpless 157 (Sh2-157)


https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2018/02/sharpless-157-in-cassiopeia-project.html


Orientation















The Grande Mosaic of Auriga in visual colors


At 2012 I published a large mosaic image out of constellation auriga. I have now shot new photos from the area and I was able to update my original panoramic photo mosaic.
I have already made a new mapped color version of it and it can be seen here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/the-grande-mosaic-of-auriga.html

I have now somehow better tools but also my skills has been improved. In this image there are active star forming regions and there are two supernova remnants visible in this panoramic image. I have also reprocessed the original photo for better colors and details.

Original mosaic has 12 panels, since my current imaging system has much large image sensor, I was able to cover several panels with just two photos. The photo has resolution of 15.000 x 9000 pixels.
Originally I used The Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera lens and QHY9 astronomical camera with Baader narrowband filter set. new material is shot with Tokina AT-x 300mm f2.8 camera lens and Apogee Alta U16 astronomical camera with Astrodon 50mm square narrowband filter set.
The total exposure time before current additions was around 70h. With new photos, the exposure time is now 90h.

Panoramic Photo of the constellation Auriga in natural colors
Click for a large image, it's worth it! (2400 x 1300 pixels)

Note, the apparent size of the full Moon is marked as a white circle at lower left corner for the scale. 
Natural colors from the emission of ionized elements, R=hydrogen - sulfur, G=Oxygen and B=Oxygen.
Large image 2400 pixels wide and ~4MB. Original resolution was about 15000 x 9000 pixels.

There are some rarely imaged objects, like Sharpless supernova remnants Sh2 224, 225 and 240 (Simeis 147). At middle there are several open clusters and Sharpless objects. (Look for an attached map at end of this page.) Outer parts of IC 405 and 410 Nebula complex are seen too. There is an interesting looking loop of gas at the Left side of the central nebula complex.

H-alpha light only,  labeled





Photos used to upgrade the mosaic


Simeis 147, technical details
https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/02/simeis-147-sh2-240-large-supernova.html


IC 405 & IC 410, technical details
https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/new-photo-deep-in-to-darkness.html


A map


Image is implemented in a map from Cartes du Ciel

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The Grande Mosaic of Auriga


At 2012 I published a large mosaic image out of constellation auriga. I have now shot new photos from the area and I was able to update my original panoramic photo mosaic.

I have now somehow better tools but also my skills has been improved. In this image there are active star forming regions and there are two supernova remnants visible in this panoramic image. I have also reprocessed the original photo for better colors and details.

Original mosaic has 12 panels, since my current imaging system has much large image sensor, I was able to cover several panels with just two photos. The photo has resolution of 15.000 x 9000 pixels.
Originally I used The Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera lens and QHY9 astronomical camera with Baader narrowband filter set. new material is shot with Tokina AT-x 300mm f2.8 camera lens and Apogee Alta U16 astronomical camera with Astrodon 50mm square narrowband filter set.
The total exposure time before current additions was around 70h. With new photos, the exposure time is now 90h.

Panoramic Photo of Auriga
Click for a large image, it's worth it! (2400 x 1300 pixels)

Note, the apparent size of the full Moon is marked as a white circle at lower left corner for the scale. 
Mapped colors from the emission of ionized elements, R=Sulfur, G=Hydrogen and B=Oxygen.
Large image 2400 pixels wide and ~4MB. Original resolution was about 15000 x 9000 pixels.

There are some rarely imaged objects, like Sharpless supernova remnants Sh2 224, 225 and 240 (Simeis 147). At middle there are several open clusters and Sharpless objects. (Look for an attached map at end of this page.) Outer parts of IC 405 and 410 Nebula complex are seen too. There is an interesting looking loop of gas at the Left side of the central nebula complex.

H-alpha light only,  labeled





Photos used to upgrade the mosaic


Simeis 147, technical details
https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/02/simeis-147-sh2-240-large-supernova.html


IC 405 & IC 410, technical details
https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/03/new-photo-deep-in-to-darkness.html


A map

Image is implemented in a map from Cartes du Ciel




Saturday, March 7, 2020

Simeis 147 (Sh2-240) with more light from oxygen, O-III


Simeis 147 is a difficult target due to a low surface brightness and a very large angular diameter.
I have published published a mapped color version of this supernova remnant. This time I have composed the narrowband channels to a visual palette. Ionized hydrogen, H-alpha emits deep red light. Since the hydrogen is the most common element in our universum, red is dominating the view.

I have collected now more exposures from light emitted by ionized oxygen, O-III. Now there are some blue hues from O-III light visible in the final image of supernova remnant Simeis 147.
previous version can be seen here, https://astroanarchy.blogspot.com/2020/02/simeis-147-sh2-240-large-supernova_22.html


Simeis 147 (Sharpless 240)
Click for a large image it's worth it!

Note, the relative size of a full Moon is marked as a white circle at bottom left, this is a large object!
Image is in natural color palette combined from narrowband channels, H-alpha, S-II and O-III. 
An ionized hydrogen and sulfur are both emitting red light, an ionized oxygen emits blue/turquoise light. Red light from an ionized hydrogen is dominating the view.


An experimental starless version

Click for a large image


The starless version Complex filaments are easier to see in this experimental starless image.



Simeis 147 (sharpless 240), is a very faint and large supernova remnant in constellation Taurus at distance of ~3000 light years. It's constantly expanding at speed of 1000 km/second but due the size of it, we can't see any movement in it. This SN spans over 160 light years and the apparent scale in the sky is about three degrees (Moon has an apparent size of 30" = 0,5 degrees).  Explosion took place approximately 30.000 years ago  and left behind a  pulsar (Neutron star). The pulsar has recently identified.

How long it'll takes to this supernova remnant to expand 1% large when the diameter is 160 light years and it expands at speed of 1000km/second.


Answer is ~480 years.
 (1% of diameter 160/100= 16, as kilometers ~151.372.800.000.00, = Y, km,
1000km/second is ~315.360.000.00, = Z, kilometers/year.
So, X x Z = Y and  X=Z/Y,    X = 480 with given values)

Technical details

Processing workflow
Image acquisition, MaxiDL v5.07.
Stacked and calibrated in CCDStack2.
Deconvolution with a CCDStack2 Positive Constraint, 33 iterations, added at 50% weight
Color combine in PS CS3
Levels and curves in PS CS3.

Imaging optics

Mount
10-micron 1000

Cameras and filters
Imaging camera Apogee Alta U16 and Apogee seven slot filter wheel
Guider camera, Lodestar x 2 and an old spotting scope of Meade LX200
Astrodon filters,
5nm H-alpha 3nm S-II and 3nm O-III

Total exposure time
H-alpha, 15 x 1200 s, binned 1x1 = 5 h
O-III, 48x 600 s, binned 2x2 = 8 h
S-II, 1 x 12 x 600 s. binned 2x2 = 2 h