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Monday, February 1, 2021

This gigapixel mosaic has about 1000 exposure hours between 2010 - 2021

Over a ten years and about 1000 hours of exposures, the image spans 82 x 20 degrees of sky at resolution of 17.000 x 72.000 pixels (Over a gigapixel) 
Individual frames are shot between 2010 and 2021, there are total 168 images stitched together
There are more than ten million stars visible in this mosaic image!

From Perseus to Cygnus
Click for a large image (6000 x 1500 pixels)

Image in mapped colors from the light emitted by an ionized elements, hydrogen = green, sulfur = red and oxygen = blue. NOTE, the apparent size of the Moon in a lower left corner. 
Click for a large image 

Click for a large image 

Evolution of the grande mosaic shot between 2010 and 2021
Click for a large image

Imaging info

It took over a ten years to finalize this mosaic image. The reason for a long time period is naturally the size of the mosaic and the fact, that image is very deep. Another reason is that I have soht most of the mosaic frames as an individual compositions and publish them as independent artworks. That leads to a kind of complex image set witch is partly overlapping with a lots of unimaged areas between and around frames. I have shot the missing data now and then during the years and last year I was able to publish sub mosaic images as I got them ready first.

My processing workflow is very constant so very little tweaking was needed between the mosaic frames. Total exposure time is way over 900 hours. Some of the frames has more exposure time, than others. There are some extremely dim objects clearly visible in this composition, like a extremely dim supernova remnant W63, the Cygnus Shell. It lays about six degrees up from North America nebula and it can be seen as a pale blue ring. I spent about 100 hours for this SNR alone. An other large and faint supernova remnant in Cygnus can be seen at near right edge of the image. G65.5+5.7 is as large as more famous Veil nebula. There are over 60 exposure hours for this SNR alone.  (Veil SNR is just outside of the mosaic area but can be seen in "Detail" image above.) 
Frames used for the large mosaic
Click for a large image


I have used several optical configurations for this mosaic image during the years. Up to 2014 I was using an old Meade LX200 GPS 12" scope, QHY9 astrocam, Canon EF 200mm f1.8 camera optics and baader narrowband filter set. After 2014 I have had 10-micron 1000 equatorial mount, Apogee Alta U16 astro camera, Tokina AT-x 200mm f2.8 camera lens and the Astrodon 50mm square narrowband filter set. I have shot many details with a longer focal length, before 2014 by using Meade 12" scope with reducer and after 2014 Celestron EDGE 11" and reducer. Quider camera has been Lodestar and Lodestar II.

Details from the large mosaic to show the resolution
(Images are reduced for a web usage)

Click for a large image!

North America and the Pelican Nebula

NOTE, image is reduced to 2000 x 1300 pixels from 6000 x 4000 pixels.

The Central Cygnus

Original size in mosaic image is 5000 x 2500 pixels

The supernova remnant G65.3+5.7

More info about this image here,

A closeup from the supernova remnant G65.3+5.7
The noise is not a noise, just a massive amount of stars

The starfield in this part of Milky Way is extremely dense, blog post about this SNR can be seen here,

The whole Cassiopeia

The tulip nebula area

The Tulip Nebula, Sh2-101, can be seen at center right, there is also a black hole Cygnus X-1
The blog post with technical details can be seen here,

Cirrus of Cygnus and the supernova remnant W63

Blog post about this photo


Jenny King said...

Your images are amazing. Simply breathtaking. I thought I was doing well with an 8 panel mosaic.
Jenny King

Jenny King said...

Your images are amazing. Simply breathtaking. I thought I was doing well with an 8 panel mosaic.
Jenny King

Lena said...

How can I get your picture?

bee said...

everyone wants a print! me too, or wallpaper